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HTTPS / SSL certificate - install, upload, enable SSL module for Apache and how to test it

I have just successfully set up my Apache 2.2.22 with RapidSSL / GeoTrust SSL green verified certificate, a very cheap and easy to setup solution that is not warning all your customers in red colors.

This tutorial covers 
  1. How to create a Virtual Host in Apache, that will listen on port 443 (HTTPS), you may have different settings for port 80 and 443, it is also easy to turn off / disable (in Apache terms a2dissite) only one port in case of troubleshooting. 
  2. Basic terminology of certificate, private key file suffixes, where to upload them on server under what file permissions accessible to which users or groups. When you generate a SSL certificate or buy it from some trusted authority, it is not a one single file but finaly at least three files ...
  3. Security concerns with private key and password (if set, you may be asked for a password every time Apache is restarted, ...). Turning on access to port 443 in firewall or Amazon EC2 security group, ...
  4. How to test, if https://www.example.com is working fine.
  5. How to redirect https to http, multiple solutions, mostly using Virtual Hosts or ModRewrite module.
  6. Performance concerns with http vs. https.
  7. Price and what are your options with buying a SSL certificate from trusted authority.